From Chapter VII., The Pythagoreans
149. The Soul as Harmony
It is further to be observed that, if the soul is regarded as an attunement in the Pythagorean sense, we
should expect it to contain the three intervals then recognised, the fourth, the fifth and the octave, and
this makes it extremely probable that Poseidonios was right in saying that the doctrine of the tripartite
soul, as we know it from the Republic of Plato, was really Pythagorean. It is quite inconsistent with
Plato's own view of the soul, but agrees admirably with that just explained.84
81. Arist. De an. A, 3. 407 b 20 (R. P. 86 c).
82. Plato, Phaed. 85 e sqq.; and for Echekrates, ib. 88 d.
83. Plato, Phaed. 86 b7-c5.
84. See J. L. Stocks, Plato and the Tripartite Soul (Mind N.S., No. 94, 1915, pp. 207 sqq.). Plato himself points to the connexion in Rep. 443 d, 5 συναρμόσαντα τρία ὄντα, ὥσπερ ὅρους τρεῖς ἁρμονίας ἀτεχνῶς, νεάτης τε καὶ ὑπάτης καὶ μέσης, καὶ εἰ ἄλλα ἄττα μεταξὺ τυγχάνει ὄντα (i.e. the movable notes). Now there is good ground for believing that the statement of Aristides Quintilianus (ii. 2) that the θυμικόν is intermediate between the λογικόν and the ἄλογον comes from the musician Damon (Deiters, De Aristidis Quint. fontibus, 1870), the teacher of Perikles (p. 255, n. 2), to whom the Platonic Sokrates refers as his authority on musical matters, but who must have died when Plato was quite young. Moreover, Poseidonios (ap. Galen, De Hipp. et Plat. pp. 425 and 478) attributed the doctrine of the tripartite soul to Pythagoras, αὐτοῦ μὲν τοῦ Πυθαγόρου συγγράμματος οὐδενὸς εἰς ἡμᾶς διασῳζομένου, τεκμαιρόμενος δὲ ἐξ ὧν ἔνιοι τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ γεγράφασιν.
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